• Assessment of resistance in cultivated and wild bananas to Banana Blood Disease.
  • The cultivar 'Khai Kasetsart 2' from the Musa (AA group) resisted the disease.
  • Pathogenesis-related (PR) protein gene expression, specifically PR3 and PR10, was significantly increased in the resistant cultivar.
Banana blood disease (BBD), caused by Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis (Rsc), is a major threat to banana production in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to assess the resistance of cultivated and wild banana accessions to Rsc and investigate the expression of pathogenesis- related (PR) protein genes, namely PR3 and PR10, in disease-resistant bananas. Bacterial isolates were isolated from infected bananas in Yala Province, Thailand, and their pathogenicity and phylotype were confirmed, along with Rsc-specific PCR. Rsc-resistance banana screening was conducted on 16 banana accessions, including cultivated and wild types, using representative Rsc isolates. ‘Khai Kasetsart 2’ exhibited resistance (R), followed by ‘Raksa’ with moderate resistance (MR). The expression of PR3 and PR10 genes was analyzed in the resistant ‘Khai Kasetsart 2’ and susceptible ‘Hin’ bananas, revealing distinct expression patterns. PR3 showed rapid upregulation on day 1 after inoculation (DAI), while PR10 exhibited sustained upregulation from 1 to 7 DAI in the resistant cultivar. These findings indicate the involvement of PR proteins in the defense response against Rsc and hold promise for future breeding and disease management strategies in bananas.
The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University Chalermphrakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus, for their support in facilitating this project. Special thanks are extended to Dr. Araya Arjcharoen Theanhom and Monthar Wongmaneeroj for providing the clean cultures of banana cultivars.
This research was funded by Kasetsart University through the Graduate School Fellowship Program and the Agricultural Research Development Agency (Public Organization) of Thailand or “ARDA”.
Joanna Puławska
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Andersen E.J., Ali S., Byamukama E., Yen Y., Nepal M.P. 2018. Disease resistance mechanisms in plants. Genes 9: 339. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9....
Bakar R.A.H., Badrun R., Ahmad K., Bakar N.A. 2018. Symptomatology and range of the blood disease bacterium A2 HR MARDI strain (Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis) on selected hosts. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS) 11: 71–77.
Blomme G., Dita M., Jacobsen K.S., Pérez Vicente L., Molina A., Ocimati W., Poussier S., Prior P. 2017. Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset: current state of knowledge and integrated approaches toward sustainable management. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 1290. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2....
Buddenhagen I. 2009. Blood bacterial wilt of banana: history, field biology and solution. Acta Horticulturae 828: 57–68. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaH....
Chen A., Sun J., Matthews A., Armas-Egas L., Chen N., Hamill S., Mintoff S., Tran-Nguyen L.T., Batley J., Aitken E.A. 2019. Assessing variations in host resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f sp. cubense race 4 in Musa species, with a focus on the subtropical race 4. Frontiers in Microbiology 10: 1062. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.....
Choi D.S., Hwang I.S., Hwang B.K. 2012. Requirement of the cytosolic interaction between pathogenesis-related protein 10 and leucine-rich repeat protein 1 for cell death and defense signaling in pepper. The Plant Cell 24: 1675–1690. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.11....
Dangl J.L., Horvath D.M., Staskawicz B.J. 2013. Pivoting the plant immune system from dissection to deployment. Science 341: 746–751. DOI: https://www.science.org/doi/10....
Das S.H.J. 2004. Molecular diagnostics of the Blood Disease Bacterium. Doctoral dissertation, Honours thesis. The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
Davis R.I., Moore N.Y., Fegan M. 2001. Blood disease and panama disease: two newly introduced and grave threats to banana production on the island of New Guinea. p. 816–821. In: “Food Security for Papua New Guinea” (R.M. Bourke, M.G. Allen, J.G. Salisbury, eds.). ACIAR proceedings, No. 99.
Decreux A., Messiaen J. 2005. Wall-associated kinase WAK1 interacts with cell wall pectins in a calcium-induced conformation. Plant and Cell Physiology 46: 268–278. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pc....
Ebrahim S., Usha K., Singh B. 2011. Pathogenesis related (PR) proteins in plant defense mechanism. p. 1043–1054. In: “Science Against Microbial Pathogens: Communicating Current Research and Technological Advances” (A. Méndez-Vilas, ed.). FORMATEX, Spain.
Fegan M., Prior P. 2005. How complex is the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. p. 449–461. In: “Bacterial Wilt Disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex” (C. Allen, P. Prior, A. C. Hayward, eds). APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Fegan M. Prior P., 2006. Diverse members of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex cause bacterial wilts of banana. Australasian Plant Pathology 35: 93–101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/AP0510....
Finkina E.I., Melnikova D.N., Bogdanov I.V., Ovchinnikova T.V. 2017. Plant pathogenesis-related proteins PR-10 and PR-14 as components of innate immunity system and ubiquitous allergens. Current Medicinal Chemistry 24: 1772–1787. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/092986....
Jain S., Kumar A. 2015. The pathogenesis related class 10 proteins in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research 3: 00077. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/apar.....
Kelman A. 1954. The relationship of pathogenicity in Pseudomonas solanacearum to colony appearance on a tetrazolium medium. Phytopathology 44: 693–695.
Kim M., Chun J. 2014. 16S rRNA gene-based identification of bacteria and archaea using the EzTaxon server. Methods in Microbiology 41: 61–74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.mim....
Lane D.J. 1991. 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. p. 115–175. In: “Nucleic acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics” (E. Stackebrandt, M. Goodfellow, eds.). John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.
Li W., Ge X., Wu W., Wang W., Hu Y., Mo Y., Sun D., Shi S., Xie J. 2015. Identification of defense-related genes in banana roots infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4. Euphytica 205: 837–849. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681....
Mintoff S.J., Nguyen T.V., Kelly C., Cullen S., Hearnden M., Williams R., Daniells J.W., Tran-Nguyen L.T. 2021. Banana cultivar field screening for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in the northern territory. Journal of Fungi 7: 627. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/jof708....
Murashige T., Skoog F. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15: 473–497. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399....
Opina N., Tavner F., Hollway G., Wang J.F., Li T.H., Maghirang R., Fegan M., Hayward A.C., Krishnapillai V., Hong W.F., Holloway B.W., Timmis J. 1997. A novel method for development of species strain-specific DNA probes and PCR primers for identifying Burkholderia solanacearum (formerly Pseudomonas solanacearum). Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology 5: 19–30.
Osmond R.I., Hrmova M., Fontaine F., Imberty A., Fincher G.B. 2001. Binding interactions between barley thaumatin‐like proteins and (1, 3)‐β‐D‐glucans: Kinetics, specificity, structural analysis and biological implications. European Journal of Biochemistry 268: 4190–4199. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1432....
Safni I., Cleenwerck I., De Vos P., Fegan M., Sly L., Kappler U. 2014. Polyphasic taxonomic revision of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex: proposal to emend the descriptions of Ralstonia solanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii and reclassify current R. syzygii strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. syzygii subsp. nov., R. solanacearum phylotype IV strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. indonesiensis subsp. nov., banana blood disease bacterium strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis subsp. nov. and R. solanacearum phylotype I and III strains as Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 64: 3087–3103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.....
Simmonds N.W., Shepherd K. 1955. The taxonomy and origins of the cultivated bananas. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 55: 302–312. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095....
Sinha M., Singh R.P., Kushwaha G.S., Iqbal N., Singh A., Kaushik S., Kaur P., Sharma S., Singh T.P. 2014. Current overview of allergens of plant pathogenesis related protein families. The Scientific World Journal 2014: Article ID 543195. DOI: https://www.hindawi.com/journa....
Supriadi. 2005. Present status of blood disease in Indonesia. p. 395–404. In: “Bacterial Wilt Disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex” (C. Allen, P. Prior, A.C. Hayward, eds.). American Phytopathological Society (APS Press), USA.
Tang Y, Liu Q, Liu Y, Zhang L, Ding W. 2017. Overexpression of NtPR-Q up-regulates multiple defense-related genes in Nicotiana tabacum and enhances plant resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum. Frontiers in Plant Science 8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2....
Teng S.K., Aziz N.A., Mustafa M., Laboh R., Ismail I.S., Sulaiman S.R., Ain Azizan A., Devi S. 2016. The occurrence of blood disease of banana in Selangor, Malaysia. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 18: 92–97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17957/IJAB/....
van Loon L.C. 1999. Occurrence and properties of plant pathogenesis-related proteins. p. 1–19. In: “Pathogenesis-Related Proteins in Plants” (S.K. Datta, S. Muthukrishnan, eds.). CRC Press LLC.
Zipfel C. 2014. Plant pattern-recognition receptors. Trends in Immunology 35: 345–351. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2....
Zuo C., Deng G., Li B., Huo H., Li C., Hu C., Kuang R., Yang Q., Dong T., Sheng O.U., Yi G. 2018. Germplasm screening of Musa spp. for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4). European Journal of Plant Pathology 151: 723–734. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658....
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top