Laboratory evaluation of the toxicity of proteus, pymetrozine, deltamethrin, and pirimicarb on lady beetle Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Col.: Coccinellidae
More details
Hide details
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Tehran Karaj 3158711167, Iran
Submission date: 2012-10-30
Acceptance date: 2013-03-28
Corresponding author
Qodrat Sabahi
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Tehran Karaj 3158711167, Iran
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2013;53(2):143-147
The implementation of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program requires selecting and using chemicals which are least harmful to natural enemies. In this study, the acute toxicity of the recommended field concentration of four conventional insecticides was evaluated in reference to the different life stages (L 3, L 4 and adult) of the variegated lady beetle Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). The evaluated insecticides were Proteus, pymetrozine, deltamethrin, and pirimicarb. A completely ran- domized design (CRD) with four replications was used as the experimental design. The means were separated by the least significant difference (LSD). The mortalities of those predators treated with the field recommended concentrations of various insecticides, were significantly different. Proteus showed strong toxicity toward the different life stages of the predator. However, pymetrozine and pirimicarb caused less than a 50% mortality. Based on the lethal concentration (LC 50) values at 24 h after treatment, the adult predator was the most susceptible to proteus, followed by deltamethrin, pymetrozine, and pirimicarb values of 35.977, 358.757, 915.667, and 2616.113. Based on sublethal concentrations (LC 30), these values were 22.718, 261.957, 569.879, and 1521.424. Based on International Organization of Biological Control (IOBC) classification, the insecticides pirimicarb and pymetrozine were both categorized as having a Class 1 toxicity level (harmless), deltamethrin as having a Class 2 level (slightly harmful), and Proteus, a Class 4 toxicity level (harmful).
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Badawy H.M., Arnaouty S.A. 1999. Direct and indirect effect of some insecticides on Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidea). J. Neuropterol. 2 (1): 67–74.
Bakker F.M., Grove A.J., Blumel S., Calis J.N.M., Oomen P.A. 1992. Side – effects for phytoseiids and their rearing methods. IOBC/WPRS Bull. 15 (3): 61–81.
Bartlett B.R. 1966. Toxicity and acceptance of some pesticides fed to parasitic Hymenoptera and predatory coccinellids. J. Econ. Entomol. 59 (5): 1142–1149.
Bayer Crop Science. 2012. Proteus. www.bayercropscience.co.nz/.
Bozsik A. 2006. Susceptibility of adult Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to insecticides with different modes of action. Pest Manage. Sci. 62 (7): 651–654.
Croft B.A., Brown A.W. 1975. Response of arthropod natural enemies to insecticides. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 20 (1): 285–355.
Croft B.A. 1990. Factors affecting susceptibility. p. 71–100. In: “Arthropod Biological Control Agents and Pesticides” (B.A. Croft, ed.). Wiley, UK, 723 pp.
EPA. 2000. Pymetrozine. Pest. Toxic Substances 7501C, 22 pp.
Haskell P.T. 1998. Global implications: introduction. p. 363–365. In: “Ecotoxicology: Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms” (P.T. Haskell, P. McEwen, eds.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 396 pp.
Hassan S.A. 1992. Guidelines for testing the effects of pesticides on beneficial organisms: description of test methods. IOBC/WPRS Bull. 15: 89–95.
Haug G., Hoffman H. 1990. Chemistry of Plant Protection 4: Synthetic Pyrethroid Insecticides: Structures and Properties. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 241 pp.
Huerta A., Medina P., Smagghe G., Castanera P., Vinuela E. 2003. Topical toxicity of two acetonic fractions of Trichilia havanensis Jacq. and four insecticides to larvae and adults of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Commun. Agric. Appl. Biol. Sci. 68 (4a): 277–286.
James D.G. 2004. Beneficial Arthropods in Washington Vineyards: Screeneng the Impact of Pesticides on Survival and Function. Final Report for Washington State Commission for Pesticide Registration, 34 pp.
Jansen J.P., Defrance T., Warnier A.M. 2011. Side effects of flonicamide and pymetrozine on five aphid natural enemy species. BioControl 56: 759–770.
Kontodimas D.C., Stathas G.J. 2005. Phenology, fecundity and life table parameters of the predator Hippodamia variegata reared on Dysaphis crataegi. BioControl 50: 223–233.
LeOra Software. 2006. Polo-Plus a User’s Guide to Probit or Logit Analysis. LeOra Software, Berkeley, CA.
Loginova E. 1984. The effect of various chemical compounds in controlling aphids on pepper inglasshouses. Gradinarskai Lozarska Nauka 21 (1): 63–70.
Lucas E., Giroux S., Demougreot S., Duchesne R.-M. Coderre D. 2004. Compatatibility of natural enemy, Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Col., Coccinellidae) and four insecticides used against the Colorado potato beetle (Col., Chrysomelidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 128: 233–239.
Mizell R.F., Sconyers M.C. 1992. Toxicity of imidacloprid to selected arthropodpredators in the laboratory. J. Florida Entomol. 75 (2): 277–280.
Obrycki J.J., Candy J.O. 1990. Suitability of three prey species for nearctic populations of Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia variegata, and Propylea quantuor decimpunctata (Col: Coccinellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 83 (4): 1292–1297.
Oomen P.A. 1998. Aims and consequenes of regulatory risk management in Europe discussion, p. 213–221. In: “Ecotoxicology: Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms” (P.T. Haskell, P. McEwen, eds.). Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 396 pp.
Papachristos D.P., Milonas P.G. 2008. Adverse effects of soil applied insecticides on the predatory coccinelllid Hippodamia undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Biol. Control 47: 77–81.
Puttaradriah M., Basavahna G.P. 1953. Beneficial coccinellidae of myscer. Indian J. Entomol. 15: 87–96.
Robertson J.L., Russell R.M., Preisler H.K., Savin N.E. 2007. Bioassays with Arthropods. 2nd ed. CRC Press, 199 pp.
Rajabi G. 1986. Harmful Insects, Cold Fruit Trees in Iran (Aphids and Leafhopper). Natural Resources, Agricultural Research Organization Publications, 256 pp.
Sabahi Q., Rasekh A., Michaud J.P. 2011. Toxicity of three insecticides to Lysiphlebus fabarum, a parasitoid of the black bean aphid Ahis fabae. J. Insect Sci. 11 (104). www.insectscience.org/11.104. Accessed: 23 December 2012.
SAS Institute. 2001. Version 6th ed. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, USA. Accessed: 7 September 2012.
Sterk G., Hassan S.A., Baillod M., Bakker F., Bigler F., Blümel S., Bogenschütz H., Boller E., Bromand B., Brun J., Calis J.N.M., Coremans-Pelseneer J., Duso C., Garrido A., Grove A., Heimbach U., Hokkanen H., Jacas J., Lewis G., Moreth L., Polgar L., Rovesti L., Samsoe-Peterson L., Sauphanor B., Schaub L., Stäubli A., Tuset J.J., Vainio A., van de Veire M., Viggiani G., Viñuela E., Vogt H. 1999. Results of the seventh joint pesticide testing programme carried out by the IOBC/WPRS-Working Group ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms’. BioControl 44: 99–117.
Talebi K., Kavousi A., Sabahi Q. 2008. Impacts of pesticides on arthropod biological control agents. Pest Technol. 2 (1): 87–97.
Vojdani S. 1964. Lady Beetle Beneficial and Detrimental to Iran. Publications Department of Tehran University of Medical Plant, 101 pp.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top