Occurrence of pesticide residues in fruit from Podlasie (Poland) in 2012
More details
Hide details
Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute Chełmońskiego 22, 15-195 Bialystok, Poland
Acceptance date: 2015-03-27
Corresponding author
Bożena Łozowicka
Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute Chełmońskiego 22, 15-195 Bialystok, Poland
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2015;55(2):142–150
Extensive use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to contamination of fruit harvests and an increased risk of toxic effects on humans. A total of 123 fruit samples harvested in 2012 in the north-eastern region of Poland were analysed for pesticide residues as part of the national monitoring programme, and as part of research commissioned by private customers. Pesticide residues were found in 64.2% of the samples. There were pesticide residues below the maximum residue level (MRL) in 63 (51.2%) of the samples, while 16 (13%) exceeded MRLs set by Regulation (EC) 396/2005. The gooseberry, currant, and strawberry samples showed the most contamination. The most frequently detected pesticides were dithiocarbamates (54) followed by difenoconazole (22), boscalid (17), and alpha-cypermethrin (15). More than half of analysed samples had multiple residues (up to 8 residues), with multiple residues most common in gooseberry and currant samples. This study shows cases of non-authorised pesticide use by farmers who are trying to protect certain fruit.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Adamczewski K., Gnusowski B., Matyjaszczyk E. 2006. Małoobszarowe uprawy rolnicze a chemiczna ochrona roślin. [Chemical plant protection in minor agricultural crops].Progress in Plant Protection/Postępy w Ochronie Roślin 46 (1): 55–62. (in Polish with English summary).
Arias L.A., Bojacá C.R., Ahumada D.A., Schrevens E. 2014. Monitoring of pesticide residues in tomato marketed in Bogota, Colombia. Food Control 35 (1): 213–217.
Bempah C.K., Donkor A., Yeboah P.O., Dubey B., Osei-Fosu P. 2011. A preliminary assessment of consumer’s exposure to organochlorine pesticides in fruits and vegetables and the potential health risk in Accra Metropolis, Ghana. Food Chemistry 128 (4): 1058–1065.
Bempah C.K., Buah-Kwofie A., Enimil E., Blewu B., Agyei-Martey G. 2012. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in vegetables marketed in Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Food Control 25 (2): 537–542.
Berrada H., Fernández M., Ruiz M.J., Moltó J.C., Mañes J., Font G. 2010. Surveillance of pesticide residues in fruits from Valencia during twenty months (2004/05). Food Control 21 (1): 36–44.
Chen C., Qian Y., Chen Q., Tao C., Li C., Li Y. 2011. Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Xiamen, China. Food Control 22 (7): 1114–1120.
Chmiel Z. 1979. Spektrofotometryczne oznaczanie śladowych pozostałości dwutiokarbaminianów w materiale roślinnym. [Spectrometric determination of dithiocarbamate residues in plant material]. Chemia Analityczna 24: 505–511.
Chowdhury M.A.Z., Fakhruddin A.N.M., Islam M.N., Moniruzzaman M., Gan S.H., Alam M.K. 2013. Detection of the residues of nineteen pesticides in fresh vegetable samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Food Control 34 (2): 457–465.
Claeys W.L., Schmit J.F., Bragard C., Maghuin-Rogister G., Pussemier L., Schiffers B. 2011. Exposure of several Belgian consumer groups to pesticide residues through fresh fruit and vegetable consumption. Food Control 22: 508–516.
EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) 2010. Annual report on pesticide residues. EFSA Journal 8 (6): 1646.
GUS (Główny Urząd Statystyczny) 2012. Środki produkcji w rolnictwie w roku gospodarczym 2011/2012. [Means of production in agriculture in the 2011/2012 farming years].GUS (Główny Urząd Statystyczny) 2013. Wyniki produkcji roślinnej w 2012 roku. [Results in crops production in 2012].
ISO 2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005.
Jardim A.N.O., Caldas E.D. 2012. Brazilian monitoring programs for pesticide residues in food – Results from 2001 to 2010. Food Control 25 (2): 607–616.
Juraske R., Mutel C., Stoessel F., Hellweg S. 2009. Life cycle human toxicity assessment of pesticides: comparing fruit and vegetable diets in Switzerland and the United States. Chemosphere 77 (7): 939–945.
Lee K.G., Jo E.K. 2012. Multiresidue pesticide analysis in Korean ginseng by gas chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry 134 (4): 2497–2503.
Łozowicka B., Kaczyński P. 2009a. Determination of carbendazim, linuron and glyphosate residues by HPLC method. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 18 (2B): 100–104.
Łozowicka B., Kaczyński P. 2009b. Pozostałości ditiokarbaminianów w żywności oraz potencjalne ryzyko narażenia konsumentów. [Dithiocarbamate residues in food and the potential risk for consumers]. Bromatologia i Chemia Toksykologiczna 4: 1155–1160.
Łozowicka B., Kaczyński P., Jankowska M., Rutkowska E., Hrynko I. 2012. Pesticide residues in raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) and dietary risk assessment. Food Additivities & Contaminants. Part B. Surveillance 5 (3): 165–171.
Łozowicka B., Kaczyński P., Jankowska M., Rutkowska E., Hrynko I., Paritova A. 2012. Pesticide residues in raspberries and their risk assessment. International Food Research Journal 21 (2): 663–672.
Matyaszek A., Szpyrka E., Podbielska M., Słowik-Borowiec M., Kurdziel A. 2013. Pesticide residues in berries harvested from south-eastern Poland (2009–2011). Annals of the National Institute of Hygiene 64 (1): 25–29.
Matyjaszczyk E. 2011. Active substances used in plant protection in Poland after the European Union accession.Journal of Plant Protection Research 51 (3): 217–224.
Nougadère A., Sirot V., Kadar A., Fastier A., Truchot E., Vergnet C., Hommet F., Baylé J., Gros P., Leblanc J-C. 2012. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: Levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers. Environment International 45: 135–150.
Nowacka A., Gnusowski B., Walorczyk S., Drożdżyński D., Raczkowski M., Hołodyńska A., Frąckowiak D., Wójcik A., Ziółkowski A., Przewoźniak M., Swoboda W., Rzeszutko U., Domańska I., Jurys J., Łozowicka B., Kaczyński P., Rutkowska E., Jankowska M., Hrynko I., Szpyrka E., Rupar J., Rogozińska K., Kurdziel A., Słowik-Borowiec M., Szala J., Szponik M., Michel M. 2012. Pozostałości środków ochrony roślin w płodach rolnych (2011). [Pesticide residues in Polish crops (2011)]. Progress in Plant Protection Research/Postępy w Ochronie Roślin 52 (4): 1106–1116. (in Polish with English summary).
Nowacka A., Gnusowski B. 2007. Estimation of the dietary exposure to pesticide residues in Polish crops in 2006. Journal of Plant Protection Research 47 (4): 469–476.
Osman K.A., Al-Humaid A.M., Al-Rehiayani S.M., Al-Redhaiman K.N. 2010. Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetables marketed in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety73 (6): 1433–1439.
Regulation 2005. Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 February 2005 on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin and amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC as follows changes.
SANCO/12495/2011. Method validation and quality control procedures for pesticide residues analysis in food and feed. 40 pp.
Sharma D., Nagpal A., Pakade Y.B., Katnoria J.K. 2010. Analytical methods for estimation of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: A review. Talanta 82 (4): 1077–1089.
Tomlin C. 2009. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium. 15th ed. British Crop Protection Council, Hampshire, UK, 1457 pp.
Walorczyk S. 2014. Validation and use of a QuEChERS-based gas chromatographic–tandem mass spectrometric method for multiresidue pesticide analysis in blackcurrants including studies of matrix effects and estimation of measurement uncertainty. Talanta 120: 106–113.
www.minrol.gov.pl [Accessed: May 13, 2014].