Phytochemical characterization by HS-SPME-GC-MS and exploration of the antifungal, insecticidal and repellent activity of Ptychotis verticillata essential oil
Mohamed Taibi 1,2, A
Allali Aimad 4,5, C
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Laboratory for Agricultural Productions Improvement, Biotechnology and Environment (LAPABE), Faculty of Sciences, University of Mohammed Premier, Oujda, Morocco
Center of Oriental Water and Environmental Sciences and Technologies (COSTEE), Mohammed First University, Oujda, Morocco
Euro-Mediterranean University of Fes (UEMF), Fes, Morocco
Laboratory of Plant, Animal, and Agro-Industry Productions, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ibn Tofail, Kenitra, Morocco
High Institute of Nursing Professions and Health Techniques annex Taza, Fez, Morocco
Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Laboratory of Bioresources, Biotechnology, Ethnopharmacology and Health, Faculty of Sciences, Mo-hammed First University, Boulevard Mohamed VI, Oujda, Morocco
Biochemistry Department College of Science University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Center of Data Science and Sustainable Technologies, INTI International University, Nilai, Malaysia
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ibn Zohr University, Laayoune, Morocco
These authors had equal contribution to this work
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Submission date: 2023-10-08
Acceptance date: 2023-12-08
Online publication date: 2024-05-15
Corresponding author
Ammar AL-Farga   

Biochemistry Department College of Science University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • We embarked on an in-depth phytochemical characterization of the various components present in PVEO.
  • We utilized the High-Performance Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) technique.
The objective of this investigation was to assess the chemical makeup of essential oil derived from Ptychotis verticillata (PVEO), and to examine its antifungal, insecticidal, and repellent properties. PVEO was extracted through hydrodistillation, and its volatile constituents were analyzed using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of antifungal activity was carried out using the agar diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test against Candida glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum. We evaluated the repellent potential, as well as the contact and inhalation toxicity of PVEO against Callosobruchus maculatus. The results of the study indicated that the essential oil of P. verticillata was composed mainly of γ-Terpinen (25.86%), β-Cymene (18.70%) O-Cymen-5-ol (16.78) and α-Pinene (12.13%). PVEO showed potent antifungal activity against all strains tested. The results of insecticidal activity of this essential oil were promising in adult C. maculatus. At a dose of 20 ml · cm–3 of air, EO caused maximum mortality with an LC50 value of 5.64 ml · cm–3 for the inhalation test and 3.4 ml · cm–3 for the contact test. In addition, a significant decrease in the number of eggs laid and adult emergence was observed as EO doses increased, reaching a reduction of around 95% at a dose of 20 ml · cm–3 of air. In terms of repellent activity, PVEO also showed encouraging results. It demonstrated an average repellent activity of around 92 ± 10.95%. Furthermore, molecular docking simulations corroborated the in vitro results and demonstrated that specific p-Menthen-3-one compounds formed more robust hydrogen bonding interactions with the target receptors. These experiments underscore PVEO’s effectiveness as a fungicide against the tested fungal strains, demonstrating its role as a bio-insecticide against C. maculatus adults, and its potential as an appealing repellent. This suggests that PVEO could serve as a valuable alternative within integrated pest management strategies.
The authors express their gratitude to the Moroccan Ministry of Higher Education, Scientific Research and Innovation, and the European Union for supporting this work under the PRIMA Programme (OLI4FOOD, ID No 1845), as well as for the support provided by the researcher support project (PNURSP2024R158) of the Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Jolanta Kowalska
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
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