Phytochemical potential of Ficus species for the control of the phytonematode Meloidogyne javanica
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Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Núcleo de Análise de Biomoléculas (NuBioMol), Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Humberto Josué de Oliveira Ramos   

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Viçosa, Av PH Rolfs, 36570-000, Viçosa, Brazil
Online publication date: 2020-06-18
Submission date: 2019-12-02
Acceptance date: 2020-02-20
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2020;60(2):193–206
Root-knot nematodes, genus Meloidogyne, are among the most plant damaging pathogens worldwide. The action of natural products against plant pathogens has been investigated to assess their effectiveness in the control of diseases. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the phytochemistry potential of the Ficus species for the control of Meloidogyne javanica. In vitro inhibitory activity assays were performed with crude ethanolic extracts of leaves and branches from 10 Ficus species. Among these, Ficus carica extracts exhibited strong paralysis activity against second stage juveniles (J2) (EC50 = 134.90 μg ∙ ml–1), after 72 hours. In addition, high efficacy was observed in egg-hatching inhibition at different embryonic stages. Microscopy analysis revealed severe morphological alterations in the nematode tissues at the J2 stage, as well as immotility of juveniles released from eggs in the presence of F. carica extracts. The efficacy of the treatments for the other species was very low. These differences were supported by the variation in the compound classes, mainly for alkaloids and metabolite profiles by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) when F. carica was compared with the other species. The results indicated that F. carica is a promising source for the isolation and identification of molecules capable of acting in the control of M. javanica.
We are very gratefully to the Nívea Moreira Vieira, Cássia Gondim Pereira, Geovani do Carmo Copati da Silva, Júlio César Nunes and Antonio Xavier Avelar for technical support. We are thankful to the professor Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto from Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Federal University of Viçosa (UFV) for contribution to the microscopy analysis.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
This study was supported by the National Institute of Science and Technology in Plant-Pest Interaction (INCT-IPP), Núcleo de Análises de Biomoléculas (Nu- BioMol, UFV), Brazilian Soybean Genome Consortium (GENOSOJA), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) – Finance Code 001, and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq).
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