Successful application of the baculovirus product Madex® for control of Cydia pomonella (L.) in Bulgaria
More details
Hide details
Fruit Growing Institute, “Ostromila” 12, 4004 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Swiss Federal Research Station Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACW, Switzerland Schloss 1, P.O. Box, CH-8820 Wädenswil, Switzerland
Andermatt Biocontrol AG, CH-6146 Grossdietwil, Switzerland
Corresponding author
Hristina Kutinkova
Fruit Growing Institute, “Ostromila” 12, 4004 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2012;52(2):205-213
The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), causes heavy damage in Bulgarian apple orchards. Conventionally treated orchards, were monitored in this study. In spite of numerous chemical treatments, these orchards showed increasing flight densities of CM moths, growing populations of hibernating larvae and rising fruit damage rates. Thus, the control of CM by conventional spray - ing programmes became ineffective, apparently due to the development of resistance to insecticides. Products based on the Cydia pomonella granulosis virus (CpGV), such as Madex ® , may provide alternative control tools that can be applied with other approaches, for a sustainable control strategy. The trials were carried out in Central-South and South-East Bulgaria, in 2006 -2010. Four treatments of Madex ® against the first generation, and six treatments against the second generation kept the fruit damage and population density of CM at a low level. Based on the obtained results, different control strategies have been suggested, depending on the initial CM pressure in a particular orchard. Madex ® may be a promising alternative to traditional programmes of CM control. Its dose, however, should be adjusted to the initial CM population density. Also, at a high or moderate CM population density Madex ® applications should be combined with MD to avoid resistance of CM to granulovirus. At the peak of CM hatching, additional chemical treatments may be sometimes necessary. Such treatments include using insecticides which are still effective against CM.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Audemard H., Burgerjon A., Baudry O., Bergere D., Breniaux D. 1992. Evaluation of 100 trials of carpovirusine, a granulosis virus preparation to control codling moth Cydia pomonella L. in apple orchards. Acta Phytophatol. Entomol. Hung. 27 (1): 45–49.
Baudry O., Corroyer N., Orts R. 1996. La carpo virusine et la lute contre le carpocapse. [The use of carpovirusine in codling moth control].Phytoma 482: 22–24.
Boivin T.C., Chabert d’Hieres J.C., Bouvier D., Beslay D., Sauphanor B. 2001.Pleiotropy of insecticide resistance in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 99: 381–386.
Charmillot P.-J. 1989. Control of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. by means of the granulosis virus. Rev. Suisse Vitic. Arboric. Hortic. 21 (1): 43–47.
Charmillot P.-J. 1995. Possibilites et limites de la lute contre le carpocapse au moyen de la technique de con fusion et du virus de la granulose: recommandations pratiques. [Possibilities and limitations of control of codling moth by merans of mating disruption techniqque and by granulovirus – practical recommendations]. Rev. Suisse Vitic. Arboric. Hortic. 27 (1): 76–77.
Charmillot P.-J., Pasquier D. 2003. Combination of mating disruption (MD) and granulosis virus to control resistant strains of codling moth. Cydia pomonella. IOBC/WPRS Bull. 26 (11): 27–29.
Charmillot P-J., Pasquier D., Salamin C., Briand F., Azizian A., Kutinkova H., Peeva P., Velcheva N. 2007. Détection de la résistance du carpocapse Cydia pomonella par application topique d’insecticides sur des chenilles diapausantes de Suisse, d’Arménie et de Bulgarie. [Detection of resistance in the codling moth Cydia pomonella.Insecticides tests on diapausing larvae from Switzerland, Armenia and Bulgaria].Rev. Suisse Vitic. Arboric. Hortic. 39 (6): 385–389.
Crook N.E. 1991. Baculoviridae: subgroup B. Comparative aspects of granulosis viruses. p. 73–110. In: “Virus of Invertebrates” (E. Kurstak, ed.). Marcel Dekker, New York, 360 pp.
Federici B. 1997. Baculovirus pathogenesis. p. 33–60. In: “The Baculoviruses” (K.L. Miller, ed.). Plenum Press, New York, 447 pp.
Fritsch E., Udorf-Spahn K., Kienzle J., Zebitz C.P.W., Huber J. 2005. Codling moth granulovirus; First indications of variations in the susceptibility of local codling moth populations. Nachrichtenbl. Deutschen Pflanzenshutz 57: 29–34.
Gröner A. 1986. Specificity and safety of baculoviruses. p. 177–202. In: “The Biology of Baculoviruses”. Vol. I. “Biological Properties and Molecular Biology” (R.R. Granados, B.A. Federici, eds.). CRC, Boca Raton, 624 pp.
Gut F.L., Brunner L.J. 1998. Pheromone-based management of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington apple orchards. J. Agric. Entom. 15 (4): 387–405.
Huber J., Dickler E. 1977. Codling moth granulosis virus: its eficiency in the field in comparison with organophosphorus insecticides. J. Econ. Entomol. 70 (3): 557–561.
Hunter-Fujita F.R., Entwistle P.F., Evans H.F., Crook N.E. 1998. Insect Viruses and Pest Management. Wiley, England, 620 pp.
Kutinkova H., Dzhuvinov V., Platon I., Rosu Mares S. 2009. Field monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by pheromone traps in Bulgaria and Romania. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 825: 371–376.
Kutinkova H., Samietz J., Dzhuvinov V. 2010. Control of codling moth in Bulgaria with a combination of Isomate C plus dispensers and the baculovirus product Madex®. J. Plant Prot. Res. 50 (4): 479–482.
Lacey L.A. Shapiro-Ilan D.L. 2003.The potential role for microbial control of orchard insect pests in sustainable agriculture. J. Food Agric. Environ. 1 (2): 326–331.
Mantinger H., Bosheri S., Paoli N. 1992. Bekämpfung des Apfelwicklers mit Granulosevirus. [Control of codling moth with granulovirus]. Obstbau-Weinbau 9: 253–255.
Minarro M., Dapena E. 2000. Control de Cydia pomonella(L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) con granulovirus y confusion sexual en plantaciones de manzano de Asturias. [Control of Cydia pomonella(L.) (lepidoptera, Tortricidae) with granulovirus and mating disruption in apple orchards of Asturia]. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal – Plagas 26 (3): 305–316.
Pasquier D., Charmillot P-J. 1998. Le virus de la granulose du carpocapse Cydia pomonella. 3. Essai pratique de longue durée. [Granulosis virus of codling moth Cydia pomonella. 3. Long-term practical staudy]. Rev. Suisse Vitic. Arboric. Hortic. 30 (3): 185–187.
Sauphanor B., Brosse V., Bouvier J.C., Speich P., Micoud A., Martinet C. 2000. Monitoring resistance to difubenzuronanddeltamethrinin French codling moth populations (Cydia pomonella). Pest Manage Sci. 56 (1): 74–82.
Sauphanor B., Berling M., Taubon J.-F., Reyes M., Delnatte J., Allemoz P. 2006. Carpocapse des pommes. Cas de résistance au virus de la granulose en vergers biologique. [Codling moth. The case of resistance to the granulosis virus in biological tests]. Phytoma – la Défense des Végétaux 590: 24–27.
Stara J., Kocourek F. 2003 Evaluation of efficacy of Cydia pomonella granulovirus(CpGV) to control the codling Moth (Cydia pomonella L., Lep.: Tortricidae) in field trials. Plant Prot. Sci. 39 (4): 117–125.
Tamm L. Häseli A., Fuchs J., Weibel F., Wyss E. 2004. Organic fruit production in humid climate of Europe: Bottlenecks and new approaches in disease and pest control. Acta Hort. 638: 333–339.
Tanada J. 1964. A granulosis virus of the codling moth, Carpocapsa pomonella L. (Olettreutidae, Lepidoptera). J. Insect Pathol. 6: 378–380.
Thiem M.S. 1997: Prospects for altering host range for baculovirus bioinsecticides. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 8 (3): 317–322.
Zingg D. 2008. Madex Plus and Madex I12 overcome virus resistance of codling moth. p. 256–260. In: “Ecofruit – 13th International Conference on Cultivation Technique and Phytopathological Problems in Organic Fruit-Growing (Boos M., ed.). Proc. Conference from 18th February to 20th February 2008 at Weinsberg/Germany.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top