• Four novel entomopathogenic fungi were isolated and identified based on molecular identification
  • Secondary metabolites of fungal strains were extracted by ethyl acetate and identified by GC-MS
  • Alkaloid extract was extracted from Haloxylon salicornicum and major compound of it was isolated and identified by 1HNMR, GC-MS
  • Effects of all extracts were evaluated against cotton mealybugs, and biochemical changes were estimated
As alternatives to chemical insecticides, entomopathogenic fungi or wild plants and their secondary metabolites are being used. These biocontrol agents are significant because of their biodegradability, specificity, eco-friendliness, and utility as agents to reduce insecticide resistance. In this study five ethyl acetate extracts of locally isolated fungal strains (Talaromyces atroroseus, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Talaromyces stipitatus, Trichoderma lixii, Beauveria bassiana) as well as alkaloid extract of Haloxylon salicornicum were extracted and investigated as biocontrol agents against cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis. The results indicated that all extracts had toxic effects against P. solenopsis except the extract of T. stipitatus. The LC50 values and toxicity index indicated that the alkaloid extract of H. salicornicum was the most toxic one (26 ppm) after 72 hours of treatment followed by the extracts of F. chlamydosporum (77 ppm), then B. bassiana (84 ppm) and T. lixii (118 ppm). On the other hand, there were significant changes in tested insect enzyme activities (amylase, lipase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and acetyl choline esterase (AchE) as well as total proteins and lipids in the insects treated with the alkaloid extract of H. salicornicum, and ethyl acetate extracts of F. chlamydosporum and B. bassiana after 24 hours of treatment compared to the control. GC/MS analyses of fungal extracts indicated that there were some bioactive compounds like hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, and tetradecanoic acid. In addition, the anabasine compound was found as a major constituent of the alkaloid extract of H. salicornicum and identified by 1H NMR and GC/MS analysis. In conclusion, according to this study, it was recommended that the alkaloid extract of H. salicornicum and the ethyl acetate extracts of F. chlamydosporum, B. bassiana, and T. lixii be used as alternatives to chemical insecticides for controlling the cotton mealybug P. solenopsis.
Chetan Keswani
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Abbott W.S. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 18: 265–267. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/18....
Abdel Galil F.A., Moharram A.M., Mahmoud M.A., Hafez W.M.M. 2019. Biocontrol of bean and wheat aphids by fungi isolated from indigenous and invasive insects collected from different locations in Minia governorate, Egypt. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences 11 (3): 79–90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/EAJBS....
Abdullah R.R.H. 2019. Insecticidal activity of secondary metabolites of locally isolated fungal strains against some cotton insect pests. Journal of Plant Protection and Pathology Mansoura University 10 (12): 647–653. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/jppp.....
Ahmed D.A. 2020. Comparative studies, under laboratory conditions, of four selected insecticides on pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.). Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences 12 (2): 47–61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/eajbs....
Ali E.A. 2004. Isolation, Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Acetyl cholinesterase (Ach E) Inhibitor Anabasine alkaloid toxin from Anabasis setifera Toxicity to rats. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansura, Egypt.
Arif M.I., Rafiq M., Wazir S., Mehmood N., Ghaffar A. 2012. Studies on cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera), and its natural enemies in Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 14 (4): 557–562.
Assar A.A., Abo El-Mahasen M.M., Dahi H.F., Amin H.S. 2016. Biochemical effects of some insect growth regulators and bioinsecticides against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Bioscience and Applied Research 2 (8): 587–594. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/JBAAR....
Ata T.E. 2019. Biological Studies on the Cotton Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under the Laboratory Condition. Journal of Plant Protection and Pathology Mansoura University 10 (3): 195–198. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/JPPP.....
Bandani A.R., Khambay B.P.S., Faull J., Newton R., Deadman M., Butt T.M. 2000. Production of efrapeptins by Tolypocladium species and evaluation of their insecticidal and antimicrobial properties. Mycological Research 104 (5): 537–544. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S09537....
Bourne Y., Sharpless K.B., Taylor P., Marchot P. 2016. Steric and dynamic parameters influencing in situ cyclo additions to form triazole inhibitors with crystalline acetylcholinestrase. Journal of the American Chemical Society 138 (5): 1611–1621. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5....
Caccavo V., Forlano P., Mang S.M., Fanti P., Nuzzaci M., Battaglia D., Trotta V. 2022. Effects of Trichoderma harzianum Strain T22 on the arthropod community associated with tomato plants and on the crop performance in an experimental field. Insects 13 (5): 418. DOI: https://doi. org/10.3390/insects13050418.
Chaiyosang B., Kanokmedhakul K., Soytong K., Poeaim S., Soytong M., Hadsadee S., Jungsuttiwong S., Yahuafai J., Siripong P., Kanokmedhakul S. 2021. New pyrrolobenzoxazine sesquiterpenoid derivatives from the fungus Talaromyces trachyspermus. Planta Medica 87 (8): 600–610. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1392....
Downer R.G.H., Matthews J.R. 1976. Patterns of lipid distribution and utilisation in insects. American Zoologist 16 (4): 733–745. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ICB/16....
Ferheen S., Ahmed E., Afza N., Malik A., Shab M.A., Nawaz S.A., Choudhary M.I. 2005. Haloxylines A and B, Antifungal and Cholinesterase Inhibiting Piperidine Alkaloids from Haloxylon salicornicum. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 53 (5): 570–572. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.53....
Finney D.J. 1971. Probit Analysis. 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, 318 pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.1....
Florkin M., Jeanuiaux C.H. 1964. Haemolymph composition. p. 109–152. In: “Physiology of Insecta” (Rockstein M., ed.). Academic Press, New York & London.
Frisvad J.C., Yilmaz N., Thrane U., Rasmussen K.B., Houbraken J., Samson R.A. 2013. Talaromyces atroroseus, a New Species Efficiently Producing Industrially Relevant Red Pigments. Plos One 8 (12): e84102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
Glennon R.A., Dukat M. 2000. Central nicotinic receptor ligands and pharmacophores. Pharmacochemistry Library 31: 103–114. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-....
Hill L., Izatt E.G. 1974. The relationships between corpora allata and fat body and haemolymph lipids in the adult female desert locust. Journal of Insect Physiology 20 (11): 2143–2156. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1... (74)90040-7.
Hodgson C.J., Abbas G., Arif M.J., Saeed S., Karar H. 2008. Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Steronorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), a new invasive species attacking cotton in Pakistan and India, with a discussion on seasonal morphological variation. Zootaxa 1913: 1–35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11646/zoota....
Horikoshi R., Goto K., Mitomi M., Oyama K., Sunazuka T., Ōmura S. 2018. Insecticidal properties of pyripyropene A, a microbial secondary metabolite, against agricultural pests. Journal of Pesticide Science 43 (4): 266–271. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1584/jpesti....
Jegathambigai V., Wilson Wijeratnam R.S., Wijesundera R.L.C. 2011. Effect of Trichoderma viride Strain NRRL 6418 and Trichoderma harzianum (Hypocrea lixii TWC1) on Livistona rotundifolia root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Journal of Entomlogy 8 (3): 229–239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/je.201....
Kairo M.T.K., Cross A.E., Lopez V.F., Peterkin D.D., Ram P. 1997. Biological control of the Hibiscus mealybug: Rearing the Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, and the parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi. Trinidad: International Institute of Biological Control, 33 pp.
Khattab A.A., El-Sayed T.I., Hashem M.S., Ibrahiem S.A. 2018. Pathogenic Effect of Trichoderma asperelliodes on Aphis craccivora. Benha Journal of Applied Sciences 3 (1): 89–99.
Khuhro S.N., Kalroo A.M., Mahmood R. 2012. Present status of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley on cotton and other plants in Sindh (Pakistan). p. 268–271. In: “Book of Papers”. World cotton Research Conferece-5, Mumbia, 07–11 November 2011, 580 pp. DOI: https://www.icac.org/ meetings/wcrc/5/Proceeding.pdf.
Kumar P.P., Kumaravel S., Lalitha C. 2010. Screening of antioxidant activity, total phenolics and GC-MS study of Vitex negundo. African Journal of Biochemistry Research 4 (7): 191–195. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBR.9....
Lisko J.G., Stanfill S.B., Duncan B.W., Watson C.H. 2013. Application of GC-MS/MS for the analysis of tobacco alkaloids in cigarette filler and various tobacco species. Analytical Chemistry 85 (6): 3380–3384. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac40....
Mantzoukas S., Kitsiou F., Lagogiannis I., Eliopoulos P.A. 2022. Potential Use of Fusarium Isolates as Biological Control Agents: Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Case Study. Applied Sciences 12 (17): 8918. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/app121....
Molnar I., Gibson D.M., Krasnoff S.B. 2010. Secondary metabolites from entomopathogenic Hypocrealean fungi. Natural Product Reports 27 (9): 1241–1275. DOI: https://doi.org/10. 1039/c001459c.
Nadeem M.K., Ahmed S., Nadeem S., Ishfaq M., Fiaz M. 2014. Assessment of insecticides resistance in field population of Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 24 (1): 172–178.
Nathan S.S., Choi M.Y., Seoa H.Y., Paik C.H., Kalaivani K., Kim J.D. 2008. Effect of azadirachtin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and histology of the brown plant hopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 70 (2): 244–250. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.07.005.
Nicoletti R., Becchimanzi A. 2022. Talaromyces–insect relationships. Microorganisms 10 (1): 45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/microo....
Osman H., Abdel-Hafez H., Khadir A. 2015. Comparison between the efficacy of two nanoparticles and effective microorganisms on some biological and biochemical aspects of Spodoptera littoralis. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research 3 (6): 2319–1473.
Panyasiri C., Attathom T., Poehling H.M. 2007. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi-potential candidates to control insect pests on tomato under protected cultivation in Thailand. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 114 (6): 278–287. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0335....
Ravindran K., Sivaramakrishnan S., Hussain M., Dash C.K., Bamisile B.S., Qasim M., Liande W. 2018. Investigation and molecular docking studies of Bassianolide from Lecanicillium lecanii against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology 206–207: 65–72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.cbpc.2018.03.004.
Ritu A., Anjali C., Nidhi T., Sheetal P., Deepak B. 2012. Biopesticidal formulation of Beauveria bassiana effective against larvae of Helicoverpa armigera. Journal of Biopesticides and Biofertilizers 3 (3): 120. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6....
Robert K. 2010. Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Third ed., vol., 1, 2, Chapter 3: 119–200. Hardback ISBN: 9780123743671, Other ISBN: 9780080922010.
SAS Institute. 1997. SAS/STAT User’s Guide for Personal Computers, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, 18 pp.
Senthil N.S., Chunga P.G., Muruganb K. 2006. Combined effect of biopesticides on the digestive enzymatic profiles of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (the rice leaffolder) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64 (3): 382–389. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoe....
Shao Y.M., Dong K., Zhang C.X. 2007. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the silkworm, Bombyxmori. BioMed Central Genomics 8 (1): 324. DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.1186/1471-2164-8-324.
Shekari M., Jalali Sendi J., Etebari K., Zibaee A., Shadparvar A. 2008. Effects of Artemisia annua L. (Asteracea) on nutritional physiology and enzyme activities of elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Mull (Coleoptera: Chrysomellidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 91 (1): 66–74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pest....
Sivakumar R., Jebanesan A., Govindarajan M., Rajasekar P. 2011. Larvicidal and repellent activity of tetradecanoic acid against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 4 (9): 706–710. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-....
Slyn’ko N.M., Tatarova L.E., Shakirov M.M., Shul’ts E.E. 2013. Synthesis of N-aryloxyalkylanabasine derivatives. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 49 (2): 294–301. DOI: http://dx. doi.org/10.1007/s10600-013-0585-1.
Sun Y.P. 1950. Toxicity index-an improved method of comparing the relative toxicity of insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology 43(1): 45-53. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/43....
Terra W.R., Ferriera C. 2005. Biochemistry of digestion. p. 171–224. In: “Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science” (Lawrence I. Gilbert, Kostas I., Sarjeet S. Gill, eds.). Elsevier.
Tulika T., Mala A. 2017. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of bioactive constituents in the ethanolic extract of Pistia stratiotes L. and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) solms. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 6 (1): 195–206.
Valencia J.W.A., Gaita´n Bustamante A.L., Grossi-de-Sa´ M.F., Jime´nez A.V. 2011. Cytotoxic activity of fungal metabolites from the pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: an intraspecific evaluation of Beauvericin production. Current Microbiology 63: 306–312. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284....
Vivekanandhan P., Karthi S., Shivakumar M.S., Benelli G. 2018. Synergistic effect of entomopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum extract in combination with temephos against three major mosquito vectors. Pathogens and Global Health 112 (1): 37–46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/20 477724.2018.1438228.
White T.J., Bruns T., Lee S., Taylor J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetic. In book: PCR Protocols 18 (1): 315–322. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0....
Wigglesworth V.B. 2012. The Principles of Insect Physiology. 7th ed. Chapman and Hall Ltd.
Wilkinson F. 1976. Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology. Plenum Press, New York.
Yokeswari N.P., Mary J.K.S., Mohan V.R. 2018. Assessment of bio-active components present in the whole plant extract of Catharanthus pusillus. International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts 6 (1): 406–612.
Zammit M., Shoemake C., Attard E., Azzopardi L.M. 2014. The Effects of Anabasine and the Alkaloid Extract of Nicotiana glauca on Lepidopterous Larvae. International Journal of Biology 6 (3): 46–53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ijb.v6....
Zibaee A., Bandani A.R. 2010. Effects of Artemisia annua L. (Asteracea) on digestive enzymes profiles and cellular immune reactions of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutellaridae), against Beauvaria bassiana. Bulletin of Entomological Research 100 (2): 185–196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S00074....
Zibaee A., Bandani A.R., Ramzi S. 2008. Lipase and invertase activities in midgut and salivary glands of Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), rice striped stem borer. Invertebrate Survival Journal 5 (2): 180–189.