Effectiveness of nanoatrazine in post-emergent control of the tolerant weed Digitaria insularis
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Agronomy Department, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Brazil
Department of Environmental Engineering, São Paulo State University (UNESP), São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Animal and Plant Biology, Londrina State University, Londrina, Brazil
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Giliardi Dalazen   

Agronomy Department, State University of Londrina, Celso Garcia Cid, 86057970, Londrina, Brazil
Submission date: 2019-10-02
Acceptance date: 2019-11-27
Online publication date: 2020-06-18
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2020;60(2):185–192
Digitaria insularis (sourgrass) is a monocotyledon weed of difficult control and high invasive behavior. Atrazine is widely applied in the Americas to control weeds in maize culture, but its efficiency against D. insularis is limited. The incorporation of atrazine into poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules increased the herbicidal activity against susceptible weeds; however, the potential of this nanoformulation to control atrazine-tolerant weeds including D. insularis has not yet been tested. Here, we evaluated the post-emergent herbicidal activity of nanoatrazine against D. insularis plants during initial developmental stages. The study was carried out in a greenhouse, using pots filled with clay soil. Plants with two or four expanded leaves were treated with conventional or nanoencapsulated atrazine at 50 or 100% of the recommended dosage (1,000 or 2,000 g ∙ ha−1), followed by the evaluation of physiological, growth, and control parameters of the plants. Compared with conventional herbicide, both dosages of nanoatrazine induced greater and faster inhibition of D. insularis photosystem II activity at both developmental stages. Atrazine nanoencapsulation also improved the control of D. insularis plants, especially in the stage with two expanded leaves. In addition, nanoatrazine led to higher decreases of dry weight of fourleaved plants than atrazine. The use of the half-dosage of nanoatrazine was equally or more efficient in affecting most of the evaluated parameters than the conventional formulation at full dosage. Overall, these results suggest that the nanoencapsulation of atrazine potentiated its post-emergent herbicidal activity against D. insularis plants at initial developmental stages, favoring the control of this atrazine-tolerant weed.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
The authors wish to thank São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, Grant Number 2017/21004-5) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Grant Number 306583/2017-8) for financial support. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brasil (CAPES) – Finance Code 001. No conflicts of interest have been declared.
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