ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Endophytic colonisation of tomato by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: the use of different inoculation techniques and their effects on the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institute of Botany Carlos Spegazzini (FCNyM-UNLP), 53 # 477, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
2
Center for Parasitological and Vector Studies (CEPAVE), CCT La Plata-CONICET-UNLP, Boulevard 120 S/N between av. 61 y 62, La Plata (1900), Buenos Aires, Argentina
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Natalia Allegrucci
Institute of Botany Carlos Spegazzini (FCNyM-UNLP), 53 # 477, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Submission date: 2017-07-14
Acceptance date: 2017-11-17
 
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2017;57(4):331–337
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Fungal entomopathogens can naturally regulate populations of various insects. The entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv.) Vuill. is also able to endophytically colonize different plants. Endophytic colonization by entomopathogens may provide a source of indirect interactions between fungi and insects and has been associated with the ability of the fungus to control insect pests. The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is considered one of the most devastating pests of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and its difficult control is due to its miner habit, short life cycle, and high reproductive capacity. The aims of this study were: (i) to use three different techniques, i.e. leaf spraying, seed immersion and root dipping, for the endophytic inoculation of B. bassiana in tomato plants; and (ii) to assess the effect of B. bassiana on tomato leaf consumption and mortality of T. absoluta after inoculation. The percentage of colonization by B. bassiana was assessed 7, 14 and 28 days after inoculation. All inoculation techniques employed allowed the recovery of B. bassiana, although our results showed significant differences between techniques. Leaf spraying was the most effective, with the highest percentage of colonization recorded 7 days after inoculation. We also evaluated (i) the effect on the mortality of T. absoluta by direct contact with conidia of B. bassiana, and (ii) the effect on tomato leaf consumption and mortality by indirect contact through ingestion of inoculated plant tissues with B. bassiana. Mortality bioassays showed that B. bassiana infected T. absoluta, either by direct contact or indirectly, via ingestion of inoculated tomato leaves. Direct contact showed a higher percentage of mortality and a lower median survival time (MST) than indirect contact. Significant differences in the mortality percentages of T. absoluta after exposure with B. bassiana were found among the treatments and the control. Our results suggest that the endophytic inoculation of B. bassiana in tomato crops provides the basis for further investigation, which should focus on the virulence of the endophytic B. bassiana against T. absoluta.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
 
REFERENCES (31)
1.
Abd El-Ghany N.M., Abdel-Razek A.S., Ebadah I.M.A., Mahmoud Y.A. 2016. Evaluation of some microbial agents, natural and chemical compounds for controlling tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae). Journal of Plant Protection Research 56 (4): 372–379. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jppr-2....
 
2.
Akello J., Dubois T., Gold C.S., Coyne D., Nakavuma J., Paparu P. 2007. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin as an endophyte in tissue culture banana (Musa spp.). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 96 (1): 34–42. DOI: 10.1016/j.jip.2007.02.004.
 
3.
Arnold A.E., Maynard Z., Gilbert G.S. 2001. Fungal endophytes in dicotyledonous neotropical trees: patterns of abundance and diversity. Mycologycal Research 105 (12): 1502−1507. DOI: 10.1017/50953756201004956.
 
4.
Barrientos Z.R., Apablaza H.J., Norero S.A., Estay P.P. 1998. Temperatura base y constante termica de desarrollo de la polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) [Base temperature and constant thermal development of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)]. Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria 25 (3): 133−137.
 
5.
Bing L.A, Lewis L.C. 1991. Suppression of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by endophytic Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin. Environmental Entomology 20 (4): 1207–1211.
 
6.
Brownbridge M., Reay S.D., Nelson T.L., Glare T.R. 2012. Persistence of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as an endophyte following inoculation of radiata pine seed and seedlings. Biological Control 61 (3): 194−200. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2012.01.002.
 
7.
Gimenez C., Cabrera R., Reina M., Gonzales C.A. 2007. Fungal endophytes and their role in plant protection. Current Organic Chemistry Journal 11 (8): 707−720.
 
8.
Goettel M.S., Inglis G.D. 1997. Fungi: Hyphomycetes. p. 213–248. In: “Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology” (L.A. Lacey, ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 395 pp.
 
9.
Gurulingappa P., Sword G.A., Murdoch G., Mc Gee P. 2010. Colonisation of crop plants by fungal entomopathogens and their effects on two insect pests when in plant. Biological Control 55 (1): 34−41. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2010.06.011.
 
10.
InfoStat. 2001. User’s Manual, Version 1. Córdoba: Universidad Nacional de Córdoba.
 
11.
Lietti M.M.M., Botto E., Alzogaray R.A. 2005. Insecticide resistance in Argentine populations of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Neotropical Entomology 34 (1): 113–119.
 
12.
Lopez Lastra C.C. 1988. Nuevas especies de insectos hospedadores para el hongo Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina Hyphomycetes) en Argentina y consideraciones sobre su patogenia [New species of host insects for the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina Hyphomycetes) in Argentina and considerations about its pathogenesis]. Revista Facultad de Agronomía, UNLP 64 (1 y 2): 42−46.
 
13.
Ownley B.H., Pereira R.M. Klingeman W.E., Quigley N.B., Leckie B.M. 2004. Beauveria bassiana a dual purpose biocontrol organism with activity against insect pest and plant pathogens. p. 255−269. In: “Emerging Concepts in Plant Health Management Research” (R.T. Lartey, A.J. Cesar, eds.), Signpost, City, India, 298 pp.
 
14.
Pelizza S.A., Cabello M.N., Lange C.E. 2010. Nuevos registros de hongos entomopatógenos en acridios (Orthoptera: AcriNatalia Allegrucci et al.: Endophytic colonisation of tomato by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana doidea) de la República Argentina [New records of entomopathogenic fungi in acridios (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) of the Argentine Republic]. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 69 (3–4): 287−291.
 
15.
Pelizza S.A., Elíades L.A., Saparrat M.C.N., Cabello M.N., Scorsetti A.C., Lange C.E. 2012a. Screening of argentine native fungal strains for biocontrol of the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris: relationship between fungal pathogenicity and chitinolytic enzyme activity. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 28 (4): 1359−1366. DOI: 10.1007/s11274.011.0935.8.
 
16.
Pelizza S.A., Eliades L.A., Scorsetti A.C., Cabello M.N., Lange C.E. 2012b. Entomopathogenic fungi from Argentina for the control of Schistocerca cancellata (Orthoptera: Acrididae) nymphs: fungal pathogenicity and enzyme activity Biocontrol Science and Technology 22 (10): 1119−1129. DOI: 10.1080/09583157.2012.713910.
 
17.
Petrini O., Fisher P.J. 1986. Fungal endophytes in Salicornia perennis. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 87 (4): 647–651. DOI:10.1016/S0007-1536(86)80109-7.
 
18.
Posada F., Aime M.C., Peterson S.W., Rehner S.A., Vega F.E. 2007. Inoculation of coffee plants with the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). Mycological Research 111 (6): 748−757. DOI: 1016/j.mycres.2007.03.006.
 
19.
Quesada-Moraga E., Landa B.B., Muñoz-Ledesma J., Jiménez--Díaz R.M., Santiago-Alvarez C. 2006. Endophytic colonization of opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, by an entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana strain. Mycopathologia 161 (5): 323−329. DOI: 10.1007/s11046.006.0014.0.
 
20.
Reddy N.P., Ali Khan A.P., Devi U.K., Sharma H.C., Reineke A. 2009. Treatment of millet crop plant (Sorghum bicolor) with the entomopathogenic fungus (Beauveria bassiana) to combat infestation by the stem borer, Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 12 (4): 221−226. DOI: 10.1016/j.aspen.2009.06.001.
 
21.
Riquelme Virgala M.B., Botto E.N., Lafalce C. 2006. Evaluación de algunos insecticidas para el control de la polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) y su efecto residual sobre el parasitoide Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) [Evaluation of some insecticides for the control of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and its residual effect on the parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)]. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 65 (3–4): 57−65.
 
22.
Russo M.L., Pelizza S.A., Cabello M.N., Stenglein S.A., Scorsetti A.C. 2015. Endophytic colonisation of tobacco, corn, wheat and soybeans by the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota, Hypocreales). Biocontrol Science and Technology 25: 475−480.
 
23.
Saikkonen K., Faeth S.H., Helander M., Sullivan T.J. 1998. Fungal endophytes: a continuum of interactions with host plants. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 29: 319−343.
 
24.
Siri A., Dikgolz V.E., Lopez Lastra C.C. 2005. Natural infections caused by the fungus Beauveria bassiana as a pathogen of Musca domestica in the neotropic. BioControl 50 (6): 937−940.
 
25.
Tefera T., Vidal S. 2009. Effect of inoculation method and plant growth medium on endophytic colonization of sorghum by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Biocontrol 54 (5): 663−669. DOI: 10.1007/s10526.009.9216.
 
26.
Toledo A.V., Remes Lenicov A.M.M., López Lastra C.C. 2008. Host range findings on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) in Argentina. Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 43 (3–4): 211–220.
 
27.
Tropea Garzia G., Siscaro G., Biondi A., Zappala L. 2012. Tuta absoluta, a South American pest of tomato now in the EPPO region: biology, distribution and damage. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 42 (2): 205–210.
 
28.
Van Bael S.A., Maynard Z., Rojas E., Mejia L.C., Kyllo D.A., Herre E.A. 2005. Emerging perspectives on the ecological roles of endophytic fungi in tropical plants. p. 181–191. In: “The Fungal Community its Organisation and Role in the Ecosystem” (J. Dighton, J.F. White, P. Oudemans, eds.). Taylor & Francis, Abingdon, USA, 597 pp.
 
29.
Vega F.E. 2008. Insect pathology and fungal endophytes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 98 (3): 277−279. DOI: 10.1016/j.jip.2008.01.008.
 
30.
Vega F.E., Posada F., Aime M.C. Pava-Ripoll M., Infante F., Rehner S.A. 2008. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes. Biological Control 46 (1): 72−82.
 
31.
Wagner B.L., Lewis L.C. 2000. Colonization of corn, Zea mays, by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66 (8): 3468–3473.
 
eISSN:1899-007X
ISSN:1427-4345