First report of black-foot disease, caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans, on ornamental marigold (Tagetes minuta) in Iran
More details
Hide details
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Razi University, 67155-1158 Kermanshah, Iran
Department of Plant Protection, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, 71689-35936 Shiraz, Iran
Submission date: 2013-09-23
Acceptance date: 2014-04-30
Corresponding author
Samad Jamali
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Razi University, 67155-1158 Kermanshah, Iran
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2014;54(2):139-143
The ornamental Tagetes minuta is a herbaceous plant of the Asteraceae family. T. minuta, a species native to southern South America, is used as a condiment, as a refreshing beverage, and for medicinal purposes. In 2011, disease symptoms of yellowing, root and foot rot, drying of leaves, and plant death were observed in an ornamental marigold (T. minuta) greenhouse in Fars province. The infected plants were collected and transferred to a laboratory. Samples were washed, cut into small pieces, surface disinfested with a 0.5% NaClO solution, and cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) acidified to pH 4.5 with 0.5% lactic acid. Based on morphological characters, the causal agent was identified as Cylindrocarpon destructans. To confirm morphological identification, DNA was extracted from isolates using a genomic DNA purification Kit. The region of internal transcribed spacers 1, 2, and 5.8S genes of rDNA were amplified using the ITS4 and ITS1 universal primer set. Fragments of 600 bp were recovered from PCR, purified, sequenced, edited, and deposited in GenBank. The isolates had a 100% identity with all the compared C. destructans sequences. The pathogenicity tests were done with a suspension of 1 × 10 6 conidia per ml homogenised in sterile water. The symptoms on inoculated plants were similar to those previously observed and the fungus was reisolated from the inoculated plants. This is the first documented report of C. destructans as a cause of root and foot rot disease on T. minuta in Iran.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Booth C. 1967. Nectria radicicola. C.M.I. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria 148: 1–2.
Brayford D., Honda B.R, Mantiri F.R., Samuels G.J. 2004. Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon: the Nectria mammoidea group and species lacking microconidia. Mycologia 96 (3): 572–597.
Camm E.L., Towers G.H.N., Mitchell J.C. 1975. UV-mediated antibiotic activity of some Compositeae species. Phytochemistry 14 (9): 2007–2011.
Chan G.F.Q., Towers G.H.N., Mitchell J.C. 1975. UV-mediated antibiotic activity of thiophene compounds of Tagetes. Phytochemistry 14 (10): 2295–2296.
Craveiro C.C., Matos F.J.A., Machado M.I.L., Alencar J.W. 1988. Essential oils of Tagetes minuta from Brazil. Perfum. Flavor. 13 (5): 35–36.
Grover G.S., Rao J.T. 1978. In vitro antimicrobial studies of the essential oil of Tagetes erecta. Perfum. Flavor. 3 (5): 28.
Hall T.A. 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acid Symposium Series 41: 95–98.
Hamelin R.C., Berube P., Gignac M., Bourassa M. 1996. Identification of root rot fungi in nursery seedlings by nested multiplex PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62 (11): 4026–4031.
Huang J.L., Kang Z.H. 2010. Detection of Thielaviopsis basicola in soil with real-time quantitative PCR assays. Microbiol. Res. 165 (5): 411–417.
Ippolito A., Schena L., Nigro F., Ligorio V.S., Yaseen T. 2004. Real-time detection of Phytophthora nicotianae and P. citrophthora in citrus roots and soil. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 110 (8): 833–843.
Langrell R.H. 2005. Development of a nested PCR detection procedure for Nectria fuckeliana direct from Norway spruce bark extracts. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 242 (1): 185–193.
Martin F.N., Coffey M.D., Zeller K., Hamelin R.C., Tooley P., Garbelotto M., Hughes K.J.D., Kubisiak T., Bilodeau G., Levy L., Blomquist C., Berger P.H. 2009. Evaluation of molecular markers for Phytophthora ramorum detection and identification: testing for specificity using a standardized library of isolates. Phytopathology 99 (4): 390–403.
Parodi L.R. 1959. Enciclopedia Argentina de Agricultura y Jardineria. Tomo II. Editorial Acme S.A.C.I., Buenos Aires, 845 pp.
Samuels G.J. 1990. Variation in Nectria radicicola and its anamorphs, Cylindrocarpon destructans. Mycol. Res. 94 (4): 433–442.
Scheck H.J., Vasquez S.J., Gubler W.D., Fogle D. 1998. First report of black-foot disease, caused by Cylindrocarpon obtusisporum, on grapevine in California. Plant Dis. 82 (4): 448.
Souguir S., Chaieb I., Chheikh Z.B., Laarif A. 2013. Insecticidal activities of essential oils from some cultivated aromatic plants against Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd). J. Plant Prot. Res. 53 (4): 388–391.
Steiner G. 1941. Nematodes parasitic on and associated with roots of marigolds (Tagetes hybrids). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 54: 31–34.
Thompson J.D., Higgins D.G., Gibson T.J. 1994. CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucl. Acid. Res. 22 (22): 4673–4680.
Wang X.J., Zheng W.M., Buchenauer H., Zhao J., Han Q.M., Huang L.L., Kang Z.S. 2008. The development of a PCR-based method for detecting Puccinia striiformis latent infections in wheat leaves. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 120 (3): 241–247.
White T.J., Bruns T., Lee S., Taylor J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal genes for phylogenetics. p. 315–322. In: “PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications” (M. Innis, ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, 522 pp.
Zhang Z.G., Li Y.Q., Fan H., Wang Y.C., Zheng X.B. 2006. Molecular detection of Phytophthora capsici in infected plant tissues, soil and water. Plant Pathol. 55 (6): 770–775.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top