ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma harzianum against soybean charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina
 
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Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Nima Khaledi
Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775–1163, Mashhad, Iran
Submission date: 2015-10-01
Acceptance date: 2016-01-26
 
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2016;56(1):21–31
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ABSTRACT
Throughout the world, charcoal rot, caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, is one of the most destructive and widespread diseases of crop plants such as soybean. In this study, the biological control capability of 11 Trichoderma spp. isolates against M. phaseolina was investigated using screening tests. Among all the tested Trichoderma spp. isolates, inhibition varied from 20.22 to 58.67% in dual culture tests. Dual culture, volatile and non-volatile tests revealed that two isolates of Trichoderma harzianum (including the isolates T7 and T14) best inhibited the growth of M. phaseolina in vitro. Therefore, these isolates were selected for biocontrol of M. phaseolina in vivo. The results of greenhouse experiments revealed that disease severity in the seed treatment with T. harzianum isolates was significantly lower than that of the soil treatment. In most of the cases, though, soil treatment with T. harzianum resulted in higher plant growth parameters, such as root and shoot weight. The effects of T. harzianum isolates on the activity of peroxidase enzyme and phenolic contents of the soybean root in the presence and absence of M. phaseolina were determined in greenhouse conditions. Our results suggested that a part of the inhibitory effect of T. harzianum isolates on soybean charcoal rot might be related to the indirect influence on M. phaseolina. Plant defense responses were activated as an elicitor in addition to the direct effect on the pathogen growth.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
 
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